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Judaism and Jewish History

Beyond the Pale: The Middle Ages
Part of the online exhibit by J. Kniesmeyer and D. Brecher, this segment explores the life of Jews in medieval Europe and their treatment by Christian society.

Clifford's Tower: Massacre at York (1190)
Some background on the history of York's Jewish community accompanies a description of the horrifying persecution and murder of the Jews in March, 1190. Well-done by David Dickerson.

The Jewish Community
An excellent introduction to autonomous Jewish communities in the Middle Ages by Elka Klein at the ORB includes a basic bibliography of sources.

Khazaria Info Center
Information about the Medieval Jewish Kingdom of Khazaria with images and contemporary quotes, well done by Kevin Brook.

Medieval Sourcebook: Medieval Jewish Life
Excellent resource by Paul Halsall at Fordham University provides primary documents concerning the Jewish community, individuals, economic situation, relationship to governments and more.

The "Other" in "Afghan" Identity...
Although at times confusing due to less-than-perfect translation, Guy Matalon, PhD, offers a sound basis of research into the history of Jewish community in Afghanistan (Khurasan) in the middle ages.

Tomás de Torquemada
This brief biography is actually an overview of Spanish treatment of Jews in the fifteenth century. Sobering and well written by Beth Randall.

Isaac Al-Phasi - Jewish Rabbi and Codifier
Rabbi Isaac Al-Phasi condensed the Talmud with a special view to practical law. A concise article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.

Amram was a gaon or head of the Jewish Academy of Sura. Article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.

'Anan ben David
The founder of the Qaraites, Anan ben David opposed the rabbanite Jews for political as well as theological reasons. A brief article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.

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