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King Richard I of England

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Richard the Lionheart from a 12th-Century Codex

Richard the Lionheart from a 12th-Century Codex

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This profile of Richard I is part of
Who's Who in Medieval History

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Richard I was also known as:

Richard the Lionheart, Richard the Lionhearted, Richard the Lion-Heart, Richard the Lion-hearted; from the French, Coeur de Lion, for his bravery

Richard I was known for:

His courage and prowess on the battlefield, and his notable displays of chivalry and courtesy to his fellow knights and enemies.

Occupations:

Places of Residence and Influence:

Important Dates:

Born: Sept. 8, 1157
Crowned king of England: Sept. 3, 1189
Captured: March, 1192
Freed from captivity: Feb. 4, 1194
Crowned again: April 17, 1194
Died: April 6, 1199

About Richard I:

Richard the Lionheart was the son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and the second king in the Plantagenet line.

Richard was far more interested in his holdings in France and in his Crusading endeavors than he was in governing England, where he spent about six months of his ten-year reign. In fact, he nearly depleted the treasury left by his father in order to fund his Crusade. Though he scored some successes in the Holy Land, Richard and his fellow Crusaders failed to meet the objective of the Third Crusade, which was to recapture Jerusalem from Saladin.

On his way home from the Holy Land in March of 1192, Richard was shipwrecked, captured, and handed over to Emperor Henry VI. A large portion of the 150,000-mark ransom was raised through heavy taxing of the people of England, and Richard was freed in February of 1194. Upon returning to England he had a second coronation to demonstrate that he still had control of the country, then promptly went to Normandy and never returned.

The next five years were spent in periodic warfare with King Philip II of France. Richard died from a wound inflicted when besieging the castle of Châlus. His marriage to Berengaria of Navarre had produced no children, and the English crown passed to his brother John.

For a more detailed look at this popular English king, visit your Guide's Biography of Richard the Lionheart.

More Richard the Lionhearted Resources:

Biography of Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart Image Gallery
Richard the Lionheart in Print
Richard the Lionheart on the Web
Richard the Lionheart Quiz

Richard the Lionheart on Film

The Lion in Winter
Henry II (Peter O'Toole) must choose which of his three surviving sons will succeed him, and a vicious verbal battle ensues between himself and his strong-willed queen. Richard is portrayed by Anthony Hopkins (in his first feature film); Katharine Hepburn won an Oscar® for her portrayal of Eleanor.

Medieval & Renaissance Monarchs of England
The Crusades
Medieval Britain
Medieval France



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