The Avignon Papacy
The Avignon Papacy was the period in the 14th century when the popes lived in and operated out of Avignon, France, instead of their traditional home in Rome
Chronological List of Medieval Popes
A timetable of popes from Simplicius to Clement VIII is presented in chronological order, with the dates of their pontificates. Linked names lead to entries in our Who's Who resource.
The Papal States
The Papal States were also known as the Republic of Saint Peter, Church States, and Pontifical States.
Popes Who Resigned
A chronological list of popes who stepped down voluntarily from the papal chair, and some who may or may not have given up their post.
Portraits of Medieval Popes
A gallery of images depicting popes from the Middle Ages.
Popes Benedict - Popes Who Chose the Name Benedict through the Centuries
Your Guide's rundown of popes who chose the name Benedict throughout the Middle Ages.
This three-page article from the 1911 Encyclopedia covers 13 Popes named Benedict from the Middle Ages.
The Development of the Papacy
Dr. Ellis Knox's overview covers the origins of papal authority and the history of the Popes through the eleventh century.
Catholic Encyclopedia: The Pope
Extensive article on the origin and history of the office of the pope, by G. H. Joyce.
The Avignon Papacy, 1305-1378
Lecture notes on the Papacy's move to France include a brief outline of the problems the Church suffered by leaving Rome and how it responded. By Lynn Nelson at the ORB.
Catholic Encyclopedia: List of Popes
Chronological list of all the popes from St. Peter in 32 AD to Benedict XVI in 2005, including any antipopes who opposed them. Each pope's and antipope's name is hyperlinked and leads to a biography and assessment of their pontificates.
Crisis in the Church
Dr. E. L. Knox's online course covers the Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism in 19 informative chapters.
Medieval Sourcebook: Empire and Papacy
Excellent source of primary documents concerning the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, provided by Paul Halsall at Fordham University.
Happy Birthday Tommaso Parentucelli!
From your About.com Guide, a look at the achievements of the Humanist Pope.
Holy Leagues Of The 16th Century
A thorough introduction to the papal alliances from 1495 to 1573, by European History Guide Robert Wilde.
Fascinating facts about the coats of arms and flags of the Papal States and individual popes, by François Veldes at his Heraldica site.
Abbreviators - Writers in the Papal Chancery
This article from the 1911 Encyclopedia discusses Abbreviators, who were writers in the papal chancery that sketched out and prepared the pope's bulls, briefs and consistorial decrees.
Pierre d'Ailly - French Theologian
Pierre d'Ailly played an important role in attempting to heal the schism that arose in the Church at the end of the Avignon Papacy. An article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Pope Alexander II
This concise article from the 1911 Encyclopedia looks at Alexander II, who was pope from 1061 to 1073.
Pope Alexander III
Before Alexander III became pope in 1159, he was a teacher of canon law in Bologna. An article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Pope Alexander IV
Alexander IV was pope from 1254 to 1261. A concise article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Pope Alexander V
This article from the 1911 Encyclopedia looks at Pope Alexander V, who was a Franciscan friar before his brief pontificate in 1409.
Pope Alexander VI
This five-page article from the 1911 Encyclopedia looks at Pope Alexander VI - Rodrigo Borgia - the most famously corrupt pope in history.
Through the centuries this castle would serve as a fortress, a papal residence and a prison.