The map below depicts the general boundaries of the various nations of Europe in the Middle Ages. Click the text links below the map to go to a directory of maps for that region.
Please note that political boundaries changed radically throughout the Middle Ages and that this map shows merely an approximation of general areas over the course of more than a thousand years. Precision is not a viable option in this case.
You can find related materials about the history of Medieval Europe in directory of People & Places.
Since Iceland (not shown) was colonized by Scandinavians, for purposes of this directory it is considered part of Scandinavia.
The southeastern portion of Europe was often invaded or influenced by the Byzantines.
The isle of Britain began as a distant outpost of the Roman Empire and was often a target of invasion through much of the Middle Ages.
(the Eastern Roman Empire) What was the eastern portion of the Roman empire retained its distinct identity after Western Rome evolved into separate kingdoms, although as some of these maps show, its size and shape changed over the centuries.
Hungary, Poland and a variety of evolving regions are covered here.
France was once part of the much larger Carolingian empire.
The Holy Roman Empire
What is today Germany was the heart of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.
During the Middle Ages the Visigoths, then the Moors, then Catholic Monarchs dominated what is today Spain and Portugal.
Today a unified nation, medieval Italy was a collection of city-states, duchies and principalities.
By the 14th century Poland had developed into a powerful state.
Though it stretched far to the east, Russia played a role in Eastern Europe, as these maps depict.
What we now know as Norway, Sweden and Denmark fought and allied with each other over the centuries to change the face of the Scandinavian peninsula.
Maps of All of
These continental maps and maps depicting portions of the continent are helpful in seeing the changes that took place across multiple regions.
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About the Medieval Atlas
The Medieval Atlas is a directory of maps, charts, geographic drawings and illustrations, illuminations, and other cartographic representations of the world in general, and the geography of Europe in particular, during the Middle Ages. Both historical maps and period or "antique" maps are included.
For more about this atlas, return to the Medieval Atlas main page.