1. Education

Medieval Islam

Islamic studies covers not only the religion of Islam but the peoples who followed that religion and established societies in early medieval Arabia. Muslims, followers of Islam, conquered extensive territory in Africa and Spain in the Early Middle Ages.

Who's Who in Medieval History: Muhammad
From your About.com Guide, a brief description of Muhammad and a selection of online sources, books, and related sites concerning Islam's founder.

Iraq: Historical Setting
This online text is from a larger work on the country of Iraq produced by the Library of Congress; edited by Helen Chapin Metz; from research completed in May, 1988. Now online here at the Medieval History Site.

Baghdad in Islamic History
A concise background of the city's origins and its golden age during the medieval era, by About Guide to Islam Huda.

Quotations by Abu Bakr or El Siddik or Al-Siddiq - Abu Bakr Quotes
Quotations attributed to Abu Bakr, or El Siddik or Al-Siddiq, friend and follower of Muhammad.

Arthur Goldschmidt, Jr. A Concise History of the Middle East
Chapter 8, Islamic Civilization, covers Islamic law, society, and intellectual life. Lucid and very helpful; placed online by Paul Halsall at the Medieval Sourcebook.

Fred Donner. The Early Islamic Conquests
Chapter VI of the 1981 book covers "Tribe and State in Arabia" and causes of the Islamic conquest. Placed online by Paul Halsall at the Medieval Sourcebook.

Bernard Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East
Chapter 1: Slavery and Chapter 9: Slaves in Arms detail how slavery was practiced in Muslim medieval societies and how professional slave soldiers and other slaves fought in Middle East conflicts. Placed online by Paul Halsall at the Medieval Sourcebook.

Patricia Crone. Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam
Crone reassesses the traditional view that the rise of Islam can be attributed to Meccan trade. Placed online by Paul Halsall at the Medieval Sourcebook.

Arabic Mathematics: Forgotten Brilliance?
An in-depth look at the oft-overlooked contribution of Arabic scientists to the growth of western mathematical knowledge, usefully hyperlinked. By John J O'Connor and Edmund F Robertson at the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.

Chronological highlights of early Islamic dynasties
12-part timeline of significant events and turning points in the history of Arabic-Islamic civilization, presented at the Islamic Arts & Architecture site.

Internet Islamic History Sourcebook
Huge resource by Paul Halsall at Fordham University provides primary and secondary documents concerning political and social Islamic history as well as the origins and development of the Islamic religion.

An Introduction to Islam
Clear overview of the religion and its history, including information about Mohammed and common misconceptions, by Mohammad I. Hussain, M.D. at the EAWC site.

Concise overview of the religion at the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance site includes an early history of Islam, which was founded in 622.

Islâm, 622 AD-present
Extensive historical background by Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D is accompanied by numerous maps and dynastic tables. Please give this large document time to load before using the hyperlinked table of contents.

Islamic Alchemy in the context of Islamic Science
Selection of scholarly articles on alchemy, medicine and other sciences in Islamic societies through the Middle Ages and beyond, at the Alchemy Virtual Library.

Islamic Art
This introduction to the artistic expression of Islamic culture by Elisabeth Siddiqui explores the Islamic view of the cosmos and religious faith in art.

Islamic Glossary
Each Islamic term in this brief list links to a substantial page of information on the subject, by Richard Hooker at the World Cultures site.

The Islamic Legacy of Timbuktu
Overview of the history of Timbuktu, primarily from an Islamic perspective, by Tahir Shah.

J. J. Saunders. A History of Medieval Islam
Chapter 9, "The Turkish Irruption," is a comprehensive overview of the spread of Turkish groups throughout Asia up to the beginning of the Crusades. Provided by Paul Halsall.

Science and Civilization in Islam
This enlightening article by Seyyed Hossein Nasr clearly explains the Islamic approach to science and art today and throughout history.

Timeline of Islam
This chronology of events at ReligionFacts from the birth of Muhammad to the 21st century includes numerous significant events from the Middle Ages.

What is the Koran?
Three-part article by Toby Lester at the Atlantic Monthly magazine addresses the "sensitive business" of researching the history and origins of the Koran.

Alp Arslan - Second Sultan of the Seljuk Dynasty
Alp Arslan signifies Valiant Lion, a name Mohammed ben da'Ud obtained through his military prowess. An article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.

Abbadides - Muslim Dynasty of Spain
Learn about the Abbadides, a Muslim Dynasty of Spain, in this article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.

Abbasids - Caliphs of Bagdad
An article from the 1911 Encyclopedia about the Abbasids, a dynasty of caliphs in Bagdad.

Ali - Successor of Muhammad - Ali Ben Abu Talib
Ali, fourth of the caliphs or successors of Mahomet, was adopted by Mahomet and educated under his care. A two-page article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.

Almohades - Founders of the Fifth Moorish Dynasty
The Almohades founded the fifth Moorish dynasty and conquered all northern Africa as far as Egypt, together with Moslem Spain. An article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.

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